Indigenous human rights Australia

The United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) was adopted by the General Assembly on Thursday, 13 September 2007.. The Declaration is the most comprehensive international instrument on the rights of Indigenous peoples. It establishes a universal framework of minimum standards for the survival, dignity and well-being of the Indigenous peoples of the world and it. On a daily basis, Indigenous peoples live with the consequences of Australia's failure to protect their basic human rights, and continue to experience racial discrimination in many spheres of life Indigenous peoples are free and equal to all others and have the right to be free from any kind of discrimination, including discrimination based on their Indigenous origin or identity (Article Two). Indigenous people have the right to live in freedom, peace and security

UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous - Human Right

The other is articles 8, 25, 29 and 31 of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. Australia announced support for this declaration in 2009. The Human Rights Act also protects cultural rights generally at section 27 of the Act Indigenous Rights Indigenous Australians are significantly over-represented in the criminal justice system, with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people comprising 29 percent of Australia's..

Indigenous Human rights Australia created by Parleen Bhullar on June 18, 202 Incarceration disproportionately affects indigenous children: they are 26 times more likely to be detained than non-indigenous children. Across Australia, around 600 children under the age of 14.. According to May (1998), the UN Committee indigenous people's human rights played a key role and cased Australia to consider the agenda and ensure adequate protection of the human rights of aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities into the future

The report found Indigenous Australians, refugees and asylum seekers are especially vulnerable to human rights abuses. Eighty per cent of human rights experts surveyed by HRMI identified these groups as being at risk of having their right to health denied. More than 70 per cent believe their rights to education and housing are not being met Read more: With a seat on the UN Human Rights Council, Australia must fix its record on Indigenous rights The committee also commended Australia for its commitment to ratifying the Optional. Indigenous activism for human rights: a case study from Australia. In J. Quataert, & L. Wildenthal (Eds.), The Routledge History of Human Rights (1st ed., pp. 432-447) The International Indigenous Human Rights Movement and the Context in Australia 42 The role of international human rights law in each of these charter-based bodies has transformed over time into a more symbiotic relationship today. For example, previously, the Security Council had been reluctant to becom Here is an overview of the Indigenous rights movement from the beginning of the century. 1901: Commonwealth of Australia formed. Indigenous Australians are excluded from the census and the.

What are Indigenous rights? - Amnesty International Australi

  1. Australian states also have the power to make laws covering issues that affect states. For example, the Human Rights Act 2004 (HRA) enacts a range of international human rights into the law of the Australian Capital Territory (ACT). Aboriginal cultural rights protected by international treaty obligation
  2. Change the Record is chaired by Indigenous experts in the justice space and draws on the combined expertise of Indigenous peak, community sector and human rights organisations. You can read our key principles for change here. Other Indigenous justice issues that we work on include: Action to stop Indigenous deaths in custod
  3. ing boom, and also a struggle for land rights for the people who had lived on these lands since time immemorial
  4. In 1962, Indigenous people gain the right to vote in federal elections. By the end of 1965, Indigenous people around the country gain the same voting rights as other Australians when Queensland follows the other states and extends voting rights to all Indigenous people to vote in state elections. Referendum for Indigenous rights May 27, 196
  5. Australia has been accused of ethnic cleansing and of breaching the principles outlined in the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples — according to the United Nations..

QHRC : Cultural rights of Aboriginal and Torres Strait

  1. Violations of the rights of Indigenous Peoples, refugees and asylum-seekers continued to cause concern. The enforcement of government COVID-19 measures lacked accountability and transparency. Background. The year began with the worst bushfires in Australia's living memory. Thirty-four people died and thousands remained displaced
  2. In Australia, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples bear a greater burden of disease and have lower life expectancy than their non-Indigenous counterparts. These combined indicators are evidence of an entrenched health crisis in the Indigenous population that is linked to systemic disadvanta
  3. An ongoing human rights issue in Australia is the legacy of mistreatment of Indigenous Australians, who are disproportionately of disadvantaged socioeconomic standing, have shorter life spans, and make up a disproportionately high number of imprisoned persons, thus receiving disproportionately high levels of social welfare payment as well as.

Indigenous Human Rights Network Australia (IHRNA), Sydney, Australia. 1,422 likes · 4 talking about this. IHRNA was established in 2009 to create a.. Australia's human rights record has been scrutinised by more than 100 countries at the UN, with the treatment of asylum seekers and Indigenous people drawing particular criticism. Australia is.. Abstract. This paper provides an analysis of the Indigenous human rights agenda and identifies its relevance to Australian archivists2 Based on this analysis and exploration of how far existing archival programs address archives-related Indigenous human rights issues, it presents a road map and action agenda for realising Indigenous cultural rights in records and archives, and embedding.

World Report 2021: Australia Human Rights Watc

  1. ation against Aboriginals which continue to affect them both physically and emotionally
  2. Native Title and Aboriginal Australians: Submission to Parliament. The Human Rights Council of Australia is of the view that the amendments to the Native Title Act 1993 (the NT Act) proposed by the Native Title Amendment Bill 1997 (the NTA Bill) will bring greater legal uncertainty and more litigation, not the greater certainty which the.
  3. Part 1: Indigenous Human Rights in Australia. The legitimacy of special measures . William Jonas and Margaret Donaldson . One Indigenous perspective on human rights . Irene Watson . Cultural rights, human rights and the contemporary removal of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children from their families . Chris Cunneen and Terry Libesma
  4. atory practices, failure to obtain Free, Prior and Informed Consent, and the continued lack of constitutional recognition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders. IV. Continuing Indigenous Human Rights Violation
  5. Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) related to indigenous peo - ples; • A brief summary of relevant regional human rights systems as they engage with indigenous peoples and protect their human rights; and • A summary of some United Nations agencies, beyond the human rights framework, engaged in indigenous peoples' issues
  6. Keywords Asia, Australia, Indigenous people, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples, Mental Health, Human Rights Send us your feedback. Print Print this pag

Indigenous Human rights Australia by Parleen Bhullar on

  1. [It shows] a total lack of regard for their obligations to the PKKP people and their human rights obligations as an international company operating in Australia. Thirty-five Aboriginal and human rights organisations have signed a letter calling for @RioTinto to be removed from a list of global companies that respect human rights. #.
  2. human rights instruments relating to human rights and Indigenous tourism (section 5) 2. Identification of key themes from UNDRIP, the NFI framework, and other human rights instruments relating to Indigenous tourism (section 6) 3. A brief overview of regional characteristics concern-ing human rights and Indigenous tourism wit
  3. ations from Aboriginal communities to establish an Aboriginal International Delegation to act as our Aboriginal Diplomats to the Foreign Representatives that reside in Australia
  4. Gibbons, L. and Shiosaki, E. 2017, 'Archives and Indigenous human rights workshop: decolonising archives in Western Australia', Curtin University, 21 September. Anna Haebich, Elfie Shiosaki and Darryl Kickett, 'No one size fits all': Community engagement research with Noongar people'
  5. orities': cultural diversity, heritage and indigenous human rights in Australia, Michele Langfield 10. A sung heritage: an ecological approach to rights and authority in intangible cultural heritage in Northern Australia, Fiona Magowan 11
  6. atory program. We briefed a Senate committee, participated in media interviews, met with politicians and advocated to the United Nations. As a result of the collaborative campaign, the government was forced to make some changes

World Report 2020: Australia Human Rights Watc

  1. ology Monograph Series, no.14, pp.21-40 12 Pages Posted: 20 Aug 2014 See all articles by Irene Watso
  2. Introduces students to the protection of human rights under both Australian law and international law from the viewpoint of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. Considers the relationship between generic human rights and specific Indigenous human rights. Practical and theoretical understandings of how human rights law can be utilised on behalf of Indigenous Australians are addressed
  3. Political participation is a human right affirmed and contextualised for indigenous peoples under the United Nations' Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.Australia was one of four post-settler colonial states to vote against the Declaration in 2007.However, in 2009 it reversed its objection
  4. Foreword Warwick Fisher & Sam Garkawe Introduction Larissa Behrendt Part 1: Indigenous Human Rights in Australia The legitimacy of special measures William Jonas and Margaret Donaldson One Indigenous perspective on human rights Irene Watson Cultural rights, human rights and the contemporary removal of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children from their families Chris Cunneen and Terry.
  5. g trend is seen all around the world. Thus, it is.

In recent years, increasing awareness of exploitation of indigenous culture and intellectual property has led to recognition of the need for more effective protection of indigenous rights in Australia. Aborigines, the indigenous people of Australia, are severely disadvantaged in terms of poverty, poor health, over-representation in the prisons. The Indigenous and Australian Studies major will cover movements such as Indigenous sovereignty, Indigenous human rights, self-determination and Indigenous futures. This will contribute to broader understandings of political and social policy within Australia (Closing the Gap 2019) and Indigenous communities self-determination to redress. This subject was previously known as Human Rights Issues 2. This subject will explore Indigenous rights at the global level as well as within the Australian context. It will examine key challenges in areas such as social determinants, gender, youth and leadership in relation to Indigenous rights and encourage a critical engagement with the topic Australia's national human rights institution, the Australian Human Rights Commission, has developed several resources to help Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples understand and protect their rights. These resources include an overview and community guide on the Declaration, as well as a poster, which aim to bring the Declaration to.

Indigenous Peoples, Human Rights and Advocacy (Australia

Forced Closures of Aboriginal Communities in Australia Continue. Feature, Indigenous advisor to the president of the UN General Assembly, Les Malzer, Human Rights, Australia, 38-4 Indigenous Rights Protect Us All. Cultural Survival Quarterly. Les Malzer, Indigenous advisor to the president of the UN General Assembly. Dec 01, 2014 Indigenous Peoples, Human Rights and Advocacy (Australia, 4th-13th May 2009) Regional Capacity Building Program on Indigenous Peoples, Human Rights and Advocacy (Thailand, 22nd-28th March 2010) Indigenous Peoples, Human Rights and Advocacy (Philippines, 6th-15th April 2011

When Foreign Minister Julie Bishop launched Australia's bid for a seat on the UN Human Rights Council (HRC) in 2015, gender equality and indigenous people's rights were two of the five 'pillars' of the campaign.In an address to the UN General Assembly last week, Bishop reaffirmed Australia's commitment to furthering international standards of human rights, to make 'meaningful. In 1982, the Working Group on Indigenous Populations was established and was one of the six working groups overseen by the Sub-Commission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights, the main. Characteristics of promising Indigenous out-of-home care programs and services (Promising Practices in Out-of-Home Care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Carers, Children and Young People, Booklet 1). Melbourne: Australian Institute of Family Studies. Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission. (1997) Indigenous rights. UNDRIP (United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples) is a comprehensive international human rights document on the rights of indigenous peoples. It sets out the minimum standards for the survival, dignity, wellbeing, and rights of the world's indigenous peoples When the Human Rights Council of Australia first approached the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission (ATSIC) in 1998 for advice on the proposal to hold the first ever international conference on sport and human rights, it was already clear that the 2000 Sydney Olympics would be demonstrating that sport and politics do mix. Download

The realisation of the human rights of Australia's Indigenous population has been marred by recurring and seemingly intractable issues such as poor health and over-representation in child welfare and juvenile justice systems. In this second edition, Briskman adopts a discursive human rights approach which offers the potential to center. 12.2 Tourism, Colonialism, Indigenous Human Rights and Reconciliation For centuries, Indigenous peoples managed their lands and resources with their own governments, laws, and traditions, however with the formation of the country of Canada, their way of life was changed forever. Among the many assimilation tools used against Indigenous people, the government forced a system of governance on. The ILO Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention was the first international convention to address the specific needs for Indigenous Peoples' human rights. The Convention outlines the responsibilities of governments in promoting and protecting the human rights of Indigenous Peoples. Convention on the Rights of the Child (1990 Indigenous health: power, politics and citizenship examines the contemporary Indigenous Australian health policy as a site of contest over the nature of Indigenous citizenship and 'belonging' to the modern state. This book uses Western an

Indigenous Human Rights Essay, No Plagiarism The Uni Tuto

Recalls further that the World Conference on Human Rights re-affirmed the commitment of the international community to promote the economic, social and cultural well-being of Indigenous Peoples; 9. Recognises the role that teachers, education support personnel and their organisations in the education system have in ensuring the promotion and. What does it mean to be a rights-holder and how does it come about? Remote Freedoms explores the contradictions and tensions of localized human rights work in very remote Indigenous communities. Based on field research with Anangu of Central Australia, this book investigates how.. The Australian Council of Human Rights Agencies has also stated that it was 'invasive and limiting of individual freedoms and human rights, and require[s] rigorous monitoring'. Amnesty International commented that the new package of legislation was the same as the original 'Intervention, but with the pretence of being non-discriminatory.

Australia is failing to meet its basic human rights

5. Lack of understanding of Aboriginal ways and meaning, resulting in inappropriate, insensitive and disrespectful practices that present a barrier to the utilisation of mainstream services. Social Work with Indigenous Communities A Human Rights Approach Second Edition Linda Briskman Federation Press 201 For further information and an electronic copy, please visit either the Australian Human Rights Commission website at: www.humanrights.gov.au or the National Congress of Australia's First Peoples website at: www.nationalcongress.com.au Artwork, design and layout Riki Salam Creative Director Gilimbaa Pty Ltd An Indigenous creative agenc The Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (the Declaration) affirms the minimum standards for the survival, dignity, security and well-being of Indigenous peoples worldwide and enshrines Indigenous peoples' right to be different. The Declaration was adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations in September 2007

Jack Latimore: It's convenient to say Aboriginal people

In 1997, the Australian Human Rights Commission published a report on the findings of the National Inquiry into the Separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children from their Families, and several state and territory parliaments and governments issued statements apologizing to the stolen generations Activity 3b: The Rights of Indigenous Australians. Australia enjoys a reputation as a country in which human rights have been observed and protected to a very high degree. However, two groups which are often mentioned as not enjoying the same benefits are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples

Aboriginal rights. We acknowledge Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples as First Australians and uphold your culture, history, diversity and deep connection to the land. We recognise the harm caused by race discrimination and vilification. It is against the law to treat you unfairly or bully you because you are Aboriginal Nonetheless, Australia's Indigenous human rights record is patchy and the previous long standing lack of commitment to the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples is illustrative of this. Indigenous peoples throughout the globe assert their rights in many ways and in a range of forums, including at the United Nations (UN) course, focusing on the colonisation of Aboriginal peoples in Australia. Students will extend this knowledge through a study of Indigenous peoples in Australia and overseas to enable them to develop a deep knowledge and understanding of contemporary social justice and human rights issues common to Indigenous communities around the world Most Aboriginal Australians did not have full citizenship or voting rights until 1965. The struggle continues Today, about three percent of Australia's population has Aboriginal heritage The 2015 Human Rights Watch review of Australia further highlighted the controversial elements of Australian policy in addressing indigenous rights. These references, combined with the statistics for assault, homicide and incarceration, show that a far stronger government commitment is needed

Voices of reason call for immediate end to NT Indigenous

All of these images are from after 1901 when Australia became a nation. The neck chains were used well up until the 1960's and only used on our people. Neck chains were used while Aboriginal men were marched from their homelands into prisons, concentration camps known as missions and lock hospitals or forced into slavery This post about human rights violations by police in Australia cites HRMI's Australia scores, particularly in regards to Indigenous Australians, along with information from Australian Lawyers for Human Rights, the Royal Commission into deaths in custody, and the Australian Law Reform Commission How Australia has failed to keep pace with international recognition of Indigenous rights. We have a human rights record second to none in the world. The Hon Daryl Williams AM, QC, MP, Attorney-General, 25 March 2000. Australia's performance on human rights has been the subject of an unprecedented level of scrutiny by the United Nations human. In this Policy Insights paper we use the successful COVID-19 health messaging in an Indigenous language as a lever to explore the ways in which communication rights for Aṉangu are coupled with their collective rights as Indigenous Australians, as a particular strand of human rights. There is a fundamental relationship between the recognition of language rights and Aṉangu bein

Minogue v Thompson [2021] VSC 56 (16 February 2021). The Victorian Supreme Court has found that whilst being held in prison, a person's right to privacy and the right to be treated with dignity while deprived of liberty under the Charter of Human Rights and Responsibilities Act 2006 (Vic) were violated when he was subjected to random drug and alcohol testing and a strip search before. The launch of the Gender Equality Fund in 2015 demonstrated the centrality of gender equality and women's empowerment in Australia's aid program. The Indigenous peoples of the world. Reconciliation is fundamental to maintaining peace and security internationally, respecting human rights and promoting equality, dignity and self-determination UN Human Rights Committee General Comment No 23 (on the rights of minorities under the ICCPR) UN Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, Report to the UN Human Rights Council, A/HRC/15/37/Add.4, 1 June 2010; Australian Human Rights Commission Community Guide to the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples; Top of pag

UN slams Australia's human rights record - The Conversatio

Archives and Indigenous human rights workshop: decolonising archives in Western Australia. On the 21st of September, the Centre's Dr Elfie Shiosaki with Dr Leisa Gibbons conducted a workshop titled 'Archives and Indigenous human rights workshop: decolonising archives in Western Australia' at Curtin University Human rights abuses related to their land rights and culture, have prompted growing numbers of Indigenous Peoples to leave their traditional lands for towns and cities. Cut off from resources and traditions vital to their welfare and survival, many Indigenous Peoples face even greater marginalization, poverty, disease and violence - and.

Following the release of the Social Justice Report 2005, the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission with Oxfam Australia developed the 'Close the Gap' campaign; in 2008 this campaign became responsible for the largest injection of funds, on paper, into addressing disparities in Indigenous health—a total of $1.6 billion (Fredericks. In addition, our work with Indigenous communities has been recognised by the Australian Human Rights Commission, which awarded the firm the Human Rights Business Award in 2014. Our work is guided by international human rights frameworks, including the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples and the United Nations Global Compact Australia: water rights and more media exposure. In the Pacific region, through the support of non-indigenous allies and Reconciliation Action Plans, Australian media has increased its coverage from an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander perspective. In 2017, indigenous peoples' water rights were at the centre of the debate Although nonbinding, it establishes international customary norms for indigenous rights. While the 1970 UNESCO and 1995 UNIDROIT conventions address Western norms of property rights, UNDRIP focuses on human rights. Some have argued that property rights are human rights and that any such distinction between the two is unhelpful (Hutt, 1998)

Indigenous activism for human rights: a case study from

The notion of self-determination and Indigenous Peoples' struggle for self-determination The right to autonomy or self-determination is a universal right as well as a moral right of all human beings. Indigenous self-determination begins with individual self-determination (Grounds, Tinker & Wilkins, eds. 2003:xiii) UN Declaration on Rights of Indigenous Peoples. After taking more than 20 years to draft and agree, on June 29, 2006, the United Nations Human Rights Council adopted the U.N. Draft Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples The Statement proposes an Archival Indigenous Human Rights Action Agenda for consideration by archival and Indigenous communities in Australia. The Statement's exposition of the relationship between Indigenous human rights and the archives, together with the strategies it proposes, may also be of relevance, or even agenda-setting, elsewhere

How will Indigenous people be compensated for lost native

This effectively denied Indigenous people's prior occupation of and connection to the land. In the 1971 Gove land rights case, Justice Blackburn ruled that Australia was terra nullius prior European settlement. This judgement was unsuccessfully challenged by subsequent cases in 1977, 1979 and 1982 Rebecca Gredley AAP. Imprisonment rates of Indigenous Australians are under scrutiny in a UN human rights review. Australia's human rights record is going under the United Nations' microscope, with the nation's treatment of Indigenous communities, asylum seekers and violence against women topping the list of global concerns Indigenous People's human rights are protected under the international treaties and conventions, as well as by the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (or UNDRIP) and our own Treaty of Waitangi. The United Nations General Assembly adopted a Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) in September 2007 An Australian government program imposing radical restrictions on Aborigines in a crackdown on child abuse is inherently racist, breaches international human rights obligations and must be changed.

Brandy v Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission (1995) 183 CLR 245. 13. Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission Act 1986 (Cwlth). See P. Bailey, Human Rights: Australia in an International Context Butterworths, 1990, Chapter 5. Note that the Human Rights Legislation Amendment Bill 1998 and the Human Rights Legislation Amendment. Australia's human rights record is going under the United Nations' microscope, with the nation's treatment of Indigenous communities, asylum seekers and violence against women topping the list of. This Act may be cited as the Australian Human Rights Commission Act 1986. This Act shall come into operation on a day to be fixed by Proclamation. Aboriginal person means a person of the Aboriginal race of Australia. (a) by or on behalf of the Commonwealth or an authority of the Commonwealth Indigenous human rights defenders from small island states have remained the moral authority on issues that affect their very existence, having played almost little to no part in the causes of climate change. In the Pacific there are wonderful stories of resilience [2].

Fight for land rights and justice for Aboriginal people

Timeline: Indigenous rights movement SBS New

Sanders, 'Collective Rights' (1991) 13 Human Rights Quarterly 368, 379-80. 6 I define Indigenous jurisprudence as theories of law that derive from Indigenous knowledge, including mythology, customs and religion. The prime example of such jurisprudence is Tikanga Māori (traditional rules) of the Indigenous population of New Zealand. This ca Language rights and Indigenous human rights in central Australia Policy Insights: Special Series S. Holcombe and A. Nampitjinpa Anderson. 03/2021 / 2021. 30 years on: Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody recommendations remain unimplemented Working pape The Australian Government indicated its support for the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples on 3 April 2009.The Declaration is a comprehensive statement of Australia's existing human rights obligations to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. Although it does not create new rights, it provides a comprehensive framework. 2. Problems with Current Human Rights Protections In recent years and months, the adequacy of human rights protections in Australia has been the subject of heated debate. The AASW believes that despite a number of positive changes, there are serious weaknesses in current human rights protections in Australia

Indigenous land rights in Australia - Wikipedi

The Law Council of Australia has also commented on this topic: Australia's appearance at the UN Human Rights Council on Thursday 8 July, in which a formal response to the recommendations received during the third cycle Universal Periodic Review (UPR) will be presented, puts a spotlight on Indigenous rights during NAIDOC Week 2 University of Minnesota Human Rights Center, Study Guide: The Rights of Indigenous Peoples (Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Humans Rights Center, 2003). hrlibrary.umn.edu/edumat. It is as if Australia is accruing the international approbrium that white South Africa achieved during the apartheid era. It's time for this country to awake in fright from its moral backwardness. And the first thing we need to act on is fully restoring the human rights of every Indigenous Australian, forever Housing, Homelessness and Human Rights in Australia; All applicants need to have a demonstrated interest in the area of native title, social justice, policy development, human rights and Indigenous affairs more generally. Programs for Indigenous students/lawyers It examines international human rights law in the context of the Law Reform Commission of Western Australia's Aboriginal Customary Laws Reference. This paper also considers the intersection of Aboriginal law with the Australian legal system and Australia's international obligations to protect the human rights of individuals balanced with th

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Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP), adopted by the General Assembly (GA) in 2007. Initially, Australia voted against the UNDRIP in 2007, but subsequently joined in 2009. Despite the earlier resistance of Australia and three International Indigenous Human Rights: Consent versus Consultatio The Mabo Case was successful in overturning the myth that at the time of colonisation Australia was 'terra nullus' or land belonging to no one. The High Court recognised the fact that Indigenous peoples had lived in Australia for thousands of years and enjoyed rights to their land according to their own laws and customs Indigenous Peoples and human rights. Indigenous peoples is a collective name for the original peoples of North America and their descendants. The Canadian Constitution recognizes three distinct groups of Indigenous (Aboriginal) peoples: Indians (referred to as First Nations), Métis and Inuit. Increasingly, and in keeping with. Regarding these particular challenges, it is timely for the Council to discuss the protection of Indigenous human rights defenders in view of the Expert Mechanism's thematic report on the rights of Indigenous peoples to lands, territories and resources