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Between 1947 and 1971 India followed which system

Evolution of India's Exchange Rate Syste

1947-71 During this time period, India followed a fixed exchange rate system under the Bretton Woods System. This system was formed in 1944, when representatives from 44 countries met to establish an efficient and effective world monetary system. Under this system, the gold exchange standard was introduced India has unresolved territorial disputes with China which in 1962 escalated into the Sino-Indian War, and with Pakistan which resulted in wars in 1947, 1965, 1971 and 1999. India was neutral in the Cold War, and a leader in the Non-Aligned Movement

The Union of India, also called the Dominion of India (Hindi: Bhāratiya Adhirājya), was an independent dominion in the British Commonwealth of Nations between 15 August 1947 and 26 January 1950. It was created by the Indian Independence Act 1947 and was transformed into the Republic of India by the promulgation of the Constitution of India in 1950.. George VI was king of India throughout and. Dominant Position of the Congress during 1947-89: The Indian multi-party system initially worked as one party dominant multi-party system. Between 1947-67, the Congress dominanted fully the Indian political scene at the national and state levels. It got 354, 371, 361 seats in 1952, 1957 and 1962 General Elections respectively The boundary demarcation line between India and Pakistan, famous as the Radcliffe Line, named after its architect, Sir Cyril Radcliffe, was published on August 17, 1947. Presently the western side of the line depicts the Indo-Pakistani border while its eastern side depicts the border between India and Bangladesh From the early historic period, Bangladesh (Banga, Bengal, East Bengal) was the part of India. In 1947, it became the part of Pakistan as East Bengal (later in October 1955, it been renamed as East Pakistan). The distance of these 2 parts of Pakistan was more than 1,500 km and separated by Indian territory

History of India (1947-present) - Wikipedi

  1. ed by the head of the commission, Sir Cyril Radcliffe
  2. British India (1858-1947) Following the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the rule of the British East India company came to end and the British crown now began to rule over India directly as per the Government of India Act 1858 through the British Raj. India was now a single empire comprising British India and the Princely states
  3. 1947: India became independent from British Rule 1947: Lord Mountbatten was appointed as last viceroy of India 1947: The Radcliffe Line between India and Pakistan was reveale
  4. Par Value System (1947-1971): After gaining Independence, India followed the par value system of the IMF whereby the rupee's external par value was fixed at 4.15 grains of fine gold
  5. Ancient times till first documented smallpox vaccination in India in 1802. The history of vaccines and vaccination starts with the first effort to prevent disease in the society 3,5,6.Smallpox (like many other infectious diseases including measles) was well known since ancient times and believed to have originated in India or Egypt, over 3,000 years ago 7,8,9,10
  6. Independence. 1947 - End of British rule and partition of sub-continent into mainly Hindu India and Muslim-majority Pakistan. Hundreds of thousands die in communal bloodshed. 1948 - War with.

Dominion of India - Wikipedi

The Indian Independence Bill, which carves the independent nations of India and Pakistan out of the former Mogul Empire, comes into force at the stroke of midnight on August 15, 1947 The Political Economy of the Raj 1914-1947: the Economics of Decolonisation in India by B.R.Tomlinson (Macmillan, 1979) The British Empire after India European Decolonisation 1918-1981: a Survey.

Comprising what was formerly the eastern wing of Pakistan, Bangladesh emerged as an independent sovereign state in December 1971. Thus, it shared its educational history with India until 1947 and with Pakistan from 1947 to 1971. After independence Bangladesh continued to follow the primary education scheme originally established by Pakistan After gaining independence, India followed the par value system of the IMF. On 15th August 1947 the exchange rate between Indian rupee and US Dollar was equal to one (i.e., 1 $= 1 Indian Rupee) India and Pakistan won independence in August 1947, following a nationalist struggle lasting nearly three decades. It set a vital precedent for the negotiated winding up of European empires elsewhere 1971 . The Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 was the first war between the countries that did not involve fighting over the Kashmir region. At this time, the Dominion of Pakistan was divided into West Pakistan and East Pakistan (initially East Bengal). These two regions were separated by the larger nation of India

The economic system that developed in India after 1947 was a mixed economy characterized by a large number of state-owned enterprises, centralized planning, and subsidies. In 1991, India's government embarked on an ambitious economic reform program Also Read : 10 Most Busiest Railway Stations in India. 1947-1980. After Independence and separation of states, numerous rail routes were built to connect different regions. The first train between India and Pakistan started in 1951. All the trains were electrified and modernized. This was the bloom period for Indian Railways The military balance between India and Pakistan is difficult to establish as it depends on many factors, such as quality of command, training, discipline and morale. Most Indian-Pakistani conflicts have ended in stalemate except the Bangladesh War in 1971, when Pakistan's defeat was complete 1920 - Nationalist leader Mahatma Gandhi heads a campaign of non-violent protest against British rule which eventually leads to independence. 1947 - India is split into two nations at independence.. And, third, to provide stability to the banking system by preventing bank failures and speculative activities. The efficacy of bank nationalisation could be seen in the increase in bank branches.

By Abby Pokraka, Program Analyst. The history between India and Pakistan, both nuclear powers, is inextricably linked. The countries have fought a series of wars since gaining their independence from Great Britain in 1947, largely over the Kashmir region, to which both countries lay claim. India became a nuclear power in 1974, and Pakistan became a nuclear power in 1998 East Pakistan was the eastern provincial wing of Pakistan between 1947 and 1971, covering the territory of the modern country Bangladesh. Its land borders were with India and Burma, with a coastline on the Bay of Bengal The history of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan began on 14 August 1947 when the country became an independent nation in the form of Dominion of Pakistan within the British Commonwealth as the result of Pakistan Movement and the partition of India.While the history of the Pakistani Nation according to the Pakistan government's official chronology started with the Islamic rule over Indian.

21 Important Features of Indian Party Syste

1948 - War breaks out between India and Pakistan over the border land of Kashmir. 1948 - Mahatma Gandhi is assassinated. 1950 - India becomes a republic. 1966 - Indira Gandhi, the daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru, is elected prime minister. 1971 - India goes to war with Pakistan over the creation of the country of Bangladesh from East Pakistan It was followed by India's struggle for independence, which we got in the year 1947. India Timeline. Indian timeline takes us on a journey of the history of the subcontinent. Right from the ancient India, which included Bangladesh and Pakistan, to the free and divided India, this time line covers each and every aspect related to the past as.

In 1946-47, as independence grew closer, tensions turned into terrible violence between Muslims and Hindus. In 1947 the British withdrew from the area and it was partitioned into two independent countries - India (mostly Hindu) and Pakistan (mostly Muslim) Step 1 of 5. a. The economic system that developed in India after 1947 was a mixed economy characterized by a large number of state-owned enterprises, centralized planning, and subsidies. In 1991, India's government embarked on an ambitious economic reform program. Much of the industrial licensing system was dismantled, and several areas once. 1947 AD - India gained independence and witnessed partition Free and Modern India (1947 onwards) In 1947, India became independent and from that year onwards, started India's struggle to become one of the leading nations of the world. Today, the country is regarded as one of the fastest growing economies of the world Q: How successful was Pakistan in its relationship with India between 1947 and 1999? Explain your answer. Ans: Given the historical background to partition, the dispute over assets and Kashmir conflict, it is perhaps not surprising that India-Pakistan relations have rarely been good The economy in India today resembles a capitalist economy with certain modifications. Most economies in the world sit somewhere between a market economy and a centrally planned economy - India is one of these countries that has a mixed economy with several characteristics of a market economy.This country tries to change the structure of the capitalist economy to make it more appropriate for.

Had an Indian constitution that created a federal system. Consists of a central government and the governments of 25 states and 7 territories. Constitution divides power between federal and state governments. India is a parliamentary democracy, which is based on the British form of government. A president is head of state but has little power The modern relationships between India and Great Britain are special as there is still tension between these two nations and colonialism remains an indicator of their relations. India is an independent state that possesses its own culture, religion and political system, but the country is still searching for its own identity 2. Describe any two major issues of conflicts between India and Pakistan leading to the war of 1971. Answer: The 1947-48 war resulted in the division of the province into Pakistan occupied Kashmir (Pok) and the Indian province of Jammu and Kashmir divided by the Line of Control (LOC). Pakistan claims Kashmir to be its part but India presumes it. March 26, 1971 - Pakistan military experiences one of the heaviest setbacks after tensions between East Pakistan and West Pakistan over the outcome of the election lead to a war. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, who founded Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP), assumes power as country's only civilian martial law administrator after Indian intervention in. After Partition in 1947, he continued to work toward peace between Hindus and Muslims. Gandhi was shot to death in Delhi in January 1948 by a Hindu fundamentalist. Early Lif

Since independence, India has fought three wars with neighboring Pakistan, in 1947 - 48, 1965, and 1971. On 10 March 1983, India and Pakistan signed a five-year agreement for improving economic and cultural ties, which was viewed as a major step in the normalization of their relations In 1971, India won the war against Pakistan that resulted in the birth of Bangladesh (then East Pakistan). On this day 47 years ago, Pakistan lost half its country, its forces in the East, and had to publicly surrender to India. It was also the largest military surrender after World War II. The war started when Pakistan launched air strikes on. there were some initial disparities between the East and the West in 1947 (Seth 1972),5 these were allegedly no more than marginal (Sengupta 1971).6 Starting from the early 1950s, disparity of per capita incomes between East and West Pakistan had been widening, however. While per capita income in East Pakistan rose by 0.7 pe

History of India's Caste System. The origins of the caste system in India and Nepal are not fully known, but castes seem to have originated more than 2,000 years ago. Under this system, which is associated with Hinduism, people were categorized by their occupations. Although originally caste depended upon a person's work, it soon became hereditary National Archives of India, The National Archives of India is the custodian of the records of enduring value of the Government of India. Established on 11 March, 1891 at Calcutta (Kolkata) as the Imperial Record Department, it is the biggest archival repository in South Asia. It has a vast corpus of records viz., public records, private papers, oriental records, cartographic records and. Urbanism, Architecture, and the Use of Space In the Indus civilization of 2700 to 1500 B.C.E. , India developed one of the earliest urban societies in the world, along with an extensive trading economy to support it. The walled citadels in some early cities developed into elaborate palisades, walls, and moats to protect the multitude of Iron Age and medieval cities throughout much of the country Bizarre methods of asset division between India & Pakistan during partition. With the June 3 plan finally in place, the leaders & officers on both sides (India & Pakistan) hardly had any time to negotiate and had to dive into the mammoth task of partition right away. While the geographical part of the partition which required redrawing of.

Pakistan fought a war with India in 1948, which was followed by an Indo-Pakistani Cold War. India in 1949 declared Pakistan to be a foreign nation, and thus the Indo-Pakistani trade subject to customs tariffs. India claimed full control over her waterways; Pakistan's main rivers enter the country from Indian territory. This question was of. In August 1947, India and Pakistan became independent. Under the scheme of partition provided by the Indian Independence Act of 1947, Kashmir was free to accede to India or Pakistan. Its accession to India became a matter of dispute between the two countries and fighting broke out later that year In 1939, the left wing political party known as the All India Forward Bloc led by Subhash Chandra Bose began to agitate for its beliefs, and it was followed in 1942 by the Quit India Movement. The Quit India Movement (8th August, 1942) was another movement led by Gandhi, and again it took the form of civil disobedience

History of Partition of India (1947) : Causes , Effects

1947. The first instance of an armed conflict between the two countries was immediately after Independence and Partition in October 1947. The fear of Kashmir acceding to India was what had triggered the struggle. The Pakistani Army infiltrated Kashmir through tribal forces in an attempt to occupy Kashmir. This was followed by the Maharaja of. Yet, the English set up a poor copy of the British judicial system as Indian judicial system... Judicial System Before 1947 '' We are trying to give a good government to people of India to whom we cannot give a free government.'' --Macauly. The British ruled India for a period of almost about 190 years

History of Bangladesh (from 1947 to 1971

As such, India was obliged to adopt the Bretton Woods system of exchange rate determination. This system is known as the par value system of pegged exchange rate system. Under this system, each member country of the IMF was required to define the value of its currency in terms of gold or the US dollar and maintain (or peg) the market value of. Stating the Problem Contemporary politics in India is characterized by issues and movements that seek to challenge and re-define the meaning of both democracy and development. The purpose of a development strategy that involves hardships, dispossession and displacement, supposedly in the pursuit of the development is being interrogated

A third war between these countries in 1971 - in which India assisted an indigenous movement reacting to the marginalization of Bengalis in Pakistani politics - resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. In response to Indian nuclear weapons testing, Pakistan conducted its own tests in mid-1998 There were three pa11itions in 1947-of British India and of the provinces of Bengal and Punjab-that created the new nation-states of India and a spatially fragmented West and East Pakistan. It engendered the largest recorded population transfer in history amidst horrific mass violence. Between 1946 and 1965, nearly 9 million I !indus and Sikh The British presence in India was run by the East India Company from 1600 to 1858 and was subject directly to the British crown from 1858 until 1947 (the British Raj). British rule always faced. Islam is the second-largest religion in India, with 14.2% of the country's population, approximately 172.2 million people, identifying as adherents of Islam in the 2011 census. It makes India the country with the largest Muslim population outside Muslim-majority countries. The majority of Indian Muslims belong to the Sunni sect of Islam, while the Shia form a sizeable minority ethnic, linguistic, tribal and religions section. Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Nigeria and now Russia can be referred to this category where the very existence of the federal system is challenged. The nature of federal crisis depends largely on the rate, volume as well as the content of the regional demands (Samuel, 1971). Whe

Bangladesh - The Pakistani period, 1947-71 Britannic

It is named after Jawaharlal Nehru, India's prime minister from 1947 to 1964, but Nehru never wore a Nehru jacket. He preferred the achkan, according to Tehelka, an Indian newspaper India and Pakistan first went to war in October 1947 after Pakistan supported a Muslim insurgency in Kashmir. India agreed to a request for armed assistance from Kashmir's Maharaja, in return for accession of the state to India. But the nature of that accession has long been the subject of debate. The war ended on 1 January 1949, with the.

Partition - the division of British India into the two separate states of India and Pakistan on August 14-15, 1947 - was the last-minute mechanism by which the British were able to. 1947 - British colonial rule over India ends.A largely Muslim state comprising East and West Pakistan is established, either side of India. The two provinces are separated from each other by more. It consists of the following: Way # 1. Tripartite Bodies: Industrial Relations in India are the outcome of principles and policies evolved through tripartite consultative work at national level with basic objective of bringing the concerned groups on the negotiating table for mutual settlement of differences in a spirit of cooperation and goodwill As India was unable to control Kashmir, it blamed Pakistan. In this regard, tension prevailed between both the countries, trading accusations and threats, India and Pakistan spent February, March and April of 1990 seemingly preparing for war.16 Sensing the threat to regional peace, the US decided to normalise the situation once again

the Muslims of India and all that hardwork had paid off on August 14th, 1947 when Pakistan became a sovereign and independent state but unfortunately the ray of light ∗ Author is Ex-student of M.A. Diplomacy & Strategic Studies, Political Science Department, Punjab University, Lahor Health care in India is a vast system and can be much like the rest of the country: full of complexity and paradoxes. History and Today. India's Ministry of Health was established with independence from Britain in 1947. The government has made health a priority in its series of five-year plans, each of which determines state spending priorities. MODERN HISTORY - WWII TO 1993: On Aug. 15, 1947 India gained independence from Britain and the next day Pakistan was created while Jawaharlal Nehru became India's first Prime Minister. From 1948 to 1949 India and Pakistan fought over Kashmir which ended when the UN divided the Kashmir between the two countries

British Policies in Colonial India. they changed all of the policies and had tortured every Indian they could find. 14 August, 1947, saw the birth of the new Islamic Republic of Pakistan. At midnight the next day. India won its freedom from colonial rule, ending nearly 350 years of British presence in India. During Religion in India: Tolerance and Segregation is Pew Research Center's most comprehensive, in-depth exploration of Indian public opinion to date. For this report, we completed 29,999 face-to-face interviews, in 17 languages, with adults ages 18 and older living in 26 Indian states and three union territories India also faces many challenges that could be tackled through the education system. For one gender issues have come to the fore because of the spate of recent cases of violence against girls Overview: Almost completely surrounded by India, Bangladesh with a population of 119.8 million people is the poorest country on the surface of the earth. Bangladesh is an independent country born in 1971 following a brief war with Pakistan. Its area is about the size of Wisconsin and the major cities are Dhaka (the capital) and Chittagong

List of wars involving India - Wikipedi

INTRODUCTION. India - with a population of 1.3 billion and an electorate of around 900 million (2019) - is the world's largest democracy and, for all its faults and flaws, this democratic system stands in marked contrast to the democratic failures of Pakistan and Bangladesh which were part of India until 1947 List the main qualities that are different between the rural and urban areas of India. How did British colonizers transport resources from the hinterland to the port cities for export back to Great Britain? How has this system changed since 1947? Explain the various ways in which the rapid population growth is impacting India

Chronology of Historical Events in Indian HistoryTimeline

Constitutional history and development. Prior to the constituent assembly that convened in 1948 to draft the Indian constitution adopted in 1950 and still in force to date, the fundamental law of India was mostly embodied in a series of statutes enacted by the British Parliament. Key among them was the Government of India Acts of 1919 and 1935 Indian states after 1947, history, politics, leaders States of India since 1947. States and Territories: Andhra Pradesh - 2 Jun 1971 - 9 Jan 1972 Bhola Paswan Shastri (3rd time) (s.a.) INC 9 Jan 1972 - 19 Mar 1972. Between 1947 and 1990, licenses, regulations which were accompanied with red tapism were required for setting up businesses. This was referred to as the Licence Raj. The impact of these was that from 1950s to 1980s the economy of India stagnated around 3.5% and there was low annual growth rate Indo-Pakistani Conflict of 1947-48. The first war between India and Pakistan began in October 1947 and ended in December 1948. The origins of the first war between India and Pakistan can be traced.

Reflecting on what shaped economic policy and the transition to millennial India, Mint's editors bring you a curated history of the economy since 15 August 1947. In a snippety, easy-to-read. Q2. Describe any two major issues of conflicts between India and Pakistan leading to the war of 1971. Answer: The 1947-48 war resulted in the division of the province into Pakistan occupied Kashmir (Pok) and the Indian province of Jammu and Kashmir divided by the Line of Control (LOC). Pakistan claims Kashmir to be its part but India presumes. be reassessed after a period ranging between 25-40 years. By a different land system called Ryotwari settlement was evolved for large parts of Bombay and Madras which subsequently was extended to North-Eastern and North-Western India. By this system, each peasant holding a plot of land was recognized as the landlord and made directly responsible t

The trend in after-tax corporate profits as a percentage of national income is also shown in Figure A. Between 1947 and 2012, the average value was 7.4 percent. In 2012, after-tax profits were equal to 11.4 percent of national income. Overall, the trend displays a U-shape that is much shallower than that of before-tax profits India marks its independence in 1947 from British colonial rule. In the background, Indian children stand in formation to spell out the Hindi word Bharat, which is the name of the country A 1947 Partition of India & Pakistan by C. Ryan Perkins As the clock struck midnight on August 15, 1947, celebratory shouts of freedom from colonial rule were drowned out by the cries of millions frantically making their way through the corpse-littered landscape of nascent India and Pakistan After almost seven decades of Independence, India has emerged as the third largest producer of electricity in Asia. It has increased its electricity generation capacity from 1,362 MW in 1947 to. Constitutional Development of India. The Constitution of Independent India was drawn up by the Constituent Assembly, initially summoned on Dec. 9, 1946. It is the longest written Constitution in the world containing 395 Articles and 12 Schedules. Download PDF for IAS Exams. For UPSC 2021 Preparation, follow BYJU'S

He received Ph.D. from Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. In 1971 he served as the Union Minister for the Education and also received Padma Vibhushan. He also established 3 institutions in Social Science research in India- Delhi School of Economics, Institute of Economic Growth and the Institute for Social and Economic Change. 8 During the 7th plan, between 1985-86 and 1989-90, India's trade deficit amounted to Rs. 54, 204 Crore. The net invisible was Rs. 13157 Crore and India's BoP was Rs. 41047 Crore. India was under a sever BoP crisis. In 1991, India found itself in her worst payment crisis since 1947

The Partition of India was the process of dividing the subcontinent along sectarian lines, which took place in 1947 as India gained its independence from the British Raj.The northern, predominantly Muslim sections of India became the nation of Pakistan, while the southern and majority Hindu section became the Republic of India Multiple Choice Questions that relate to Belief Systems. Next. 1. - Buddhist temples are found in Japan. - Most Indonesians study the Quran. - Catholicism is the dominant religion in Latin America. These statements illustrate a result of. (1) westernization. (2) cultural diffusion The dispute between India and Pakistan over Kashmir was sparked by a fateful decision in 1947, and has resulted in decades of violence, including two wars. Since 1947, India and Pakistan have been. Islam in India. Islam is the second most followed religion in India, influencing the country's society, culture, architecture and artistry. The partition of the subcontinent in 1947 led to mass emigration of roughly 10 million Muslims to Pakistan and nearly as many Hindus and Sikhs from Pakistan into India

Exchange Rate Management in India - Jagranjosh

Bretton Woods Agreement: The Bretton Woods Agreement is the landmark system for monetary and exchange rate management established in 1944. It was developed at the United Nations Monetary and. Hindu-majority India and Muslim-majority Pakistan (which then included present-day Bangladesh) were eventually granted independence in 1947 as separate sovereign countries—an event that was marred by horrific sectarian violence and mutual genocidal mass killings between Hindus, Muslims, and Sikhs How Much things cost in 1947 Average Cost of new house $6,600.00 Average wages per year $2,850.00 Cost of a gallon of Gas 15 cents Average Cost of a new car $1,300.00 Loaf of Bread 13 cents United States Postage Stamp 3 cents Men's Sweater $8.50 Bulova Men's Watch $52.50 Couple of examples of houses for sale this year Harlingen , Texas New Brick House 5 room house with all furniture included.

A brief history of vaccines & vaccination in Indi

Causes Which Led To The Civil War 1971. Geographically Divided Nation Tensions between East and West Pakistan existed from the creation of Pakistan (1947). Pakistan was an odd creation wIth the two parts, East and West Pakistan separated by more than 1,000 miles. The two parts of Pakistan shared few cultural and social traditions other than Islam CBSE Social Sciences Civics Class 10 Federalism LAQ. Q.1. Explain the major key features of federalism. Describe any four features of the federalism. [CBSE 2011, 14] Federalism is a system of government in which the governmental power is divided between a central authority and its various constituent units. Usually, a federation has two levels. Seen initially as a viable political compromise, the partition of the Indian subcontinent instead led to one of the largest forced migrations in world history, with an estimated 17.9 million people leaving their homes (Aiyar 1998, Bharadwaj et al. 2008a). Estimates of the number killed between March 1947 and January 1948 range from 180,000 to.

India profile - Timeline - BBC New

In India, the formation of coalition governments at the centre started with Morarji Desai's regime, though at the state level, these had started functioning from 1967. At the centre, coalition ministries have been formed seven times between 1977 and April 1999. The first coalition min­istry of Morarji Desai lasted for 857 days (between March. Follow Al Jazeera's coverage of the 70 years of India-Pakistan partition. Within months, India and Pakistan were embroiled in a war over Kashmir, the consequences of which still affect us today. By early 1946, those leaders set free all the political prisoners held in India and opened independence discussions with the Indian National Congress Party. On the 14th of August 1947 Pakistan gained independence and a day later on the 15th of August India gained its independence as well. India's independence (1947 to 1950 5.2.1 Other Conquests, System of Alliances and Annexations The Third Battle of Panipat against the Marathas in 1761 had already provided the stage for the success of British in India. Soon many more native states came under British control. This was done by a system of alliances called the Doctrine of Lapse and Subsidiary Alliance In fact, India's GDP growth reached a peak of over 9 percent in 2005-8, followed by a dip to just under 7 percent in 2017-18. A major development of the economic reforms was the remarkable.

The Bretton Woods System was established after World War II and was in existence during the period 1945-1972. In 1944, representatives of 44 nations met at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, and designed a new postwar international monetary system. This system advocated the adoption of an exchange standard that included both gold and foreign exchanges Until 1947 Bangladesh was known as East Bengal province and had been part of Great Britain's India holding since the 1700s. In 1947, Britain, in conjunction with India's leading indigenous political organizations, partitioned the Indian colony into India and Pakistan General Agreement On Tariffs And Trade: A treaty created following the conclusion of World War II. The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) was implemented to further regulate world trade. NATLEX - India. The Factories Act, 1948 (Act No. 63 of 1948),as amended by the Factories (Amendment) Act, 1987 (Act 20 of 1987